Answer by Thomas Zerbarini:
Learning about the airspace system and operating the National Airspace System which includes air traffic control (ATC) is an integral part of all pilot training. Check out the FAA's Pilot Training Standards for each of the Certificates and Ratings issued by the FAA and you'll find reference to airspace, communications, planning, etc.. is peppered throughout each PTS booklet. Also, there are references to other sources of information a pilot will need to be familiar with or master as per the PTS for that certificate/rating.
Each booklet is downloadable free.